Women may have lived longer in the past few decades as they sat around in leasure while their husband worked. The fact today is many more women are working jobs. Funny, all hard work is done by men. Most stressful jobs are done by men- they work their entire lives in bad weather, hot or cold, darkness at night, spiders, snakes, tree cutting, mining, police, fire, etc. come on- you don't need a pychology degree to see theorize why women live longer. Last week, for example I worked 50 hours overtime- do women do that? No. Sorry to say, pyschologists, may have no relief from hearing psychological pain, but they don't have the stress as men who work out in the weather and danger, so you don't know the stress of real work. By the way, you did not mention the theory that women not having testosterone, have a different immune system- one that has to co-exist with foreign life, be it bacteria or a baby. A man, all his life, has a super immune system that knocks any foreign body out of his system. He can eat dirt practically, and not catch disease. It is here that is the best theory. Because, when a man reaches above 40, his testosterone drops. However, he still lives the same, where he has the same poor habits, (2 second rule for eating dropped food on the floor). He doesn't realize that his immune system is no longer as strong. I talk from experience. All my life, I had very low testosterone. I got sick pretty quickly if someone was sick around me. I caught it all. I thus had to get good habits of cleanliness, and stay away from people sick, etc. For the past 2 years, I've been on Testosterone Replacement Therapy- and what do you know- I haven't been sick for 2 years. A wonder? No- Testosterone. Research one of the leading Endocronologists in the US, he has a study, where he's been studying a huge pool of men over 90- he said in so many words- all men had high levels of testosterone, but let me put it another way, none had low levels. In other words, a man with low levels is a man who dies young. Men are Testosterone. You can't even study Psychology without knowing the effects of testosterone. It is what make a man a jar head who will charge up a hill in battle knowing he's going to get killed. Take the same man, same situation but 40 years later, and he will not go up that hill. The older a man gets, the more he says he has wisdom. The fact is, Wisdom is the absence of Testosterone! Women, in fact, are emotional thinkers, men are logical. Tell men about hygiene, and they follow orders the rest of their lives. Do a survey on men in the Navy- you'll find they all take short, brief, showers, and they all eat their meals fast. Why? That's how they were trained in the Navy. Look at all those public bathroom studies of men vs. women, where they show the women wash their hands far less then men. You can't say women outlive men because of caregiving. Women have a herd mentality- they go with the flow. Find out who takes more vitamins- men or women? One problem we do have is the discrimination in healthcare. Men vs Women: Women and men have equal number of Breast vs. Prostate cancer. Presently in the news, society is bashing men for wanting Viagra in the teacher's healthcare plan in the midwest, (remember, 25% of men above 40 have low testosterone). Women have a healthcare system where they just show up at a "Gynocologest office" and they get all female related healthcare. Hmmmm... 40% of male throat cancer is due to HPV, (the same virus that they do a PAP smear for)- why aren't they PAP smearing a man's throat when they find out their wives are positive for HPV??? Hmmm...As a man when I go to the doctor and say I want a yearly physical, they say- why??? what's wrong. Women- they get a full check up. Men are not given the same healthcare. Ostiroperosis, (sp), is it a female disease? No. 40% of all cases are men. Why aren't men treated? Oh, medical doctors say that men will not live long enough. Hmmm...sounds like chicken vs the egg. If men were given testosterone, like they are given blood medication, you'd find they live long enough. Oh, that's right- low testosterone is what causes loss of calcium in men- ostereoporosis. It's a joke for anyone to say that women work as hard as men do. That statement alone says why men die earlier. With more women finally in the workforce, and many more smoking, drinking, doing illegal drugs, and perscriptions illegally, you'll see them drop like flies. Women have twice the rate of mental illness. Why? I say it's because they have little Testosterone. You need to do a study on testosterone and it's affects. You'd be fascinated on it's far reach into human behavior. Evolutionary Physcologist? You need to study Testosterone. How some men have a lot, and some men have lesser amount. Hormones run the entire game in life. Testosterone has decreased by half since 1950. Why? Not evolution- it's our toxic enviroment. Hormones in our milk, Phalates in plastic, etc. Testosterone. is your answer and research will give you the questions.